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Rabies has been a widely feared disease for thousands of years, with records of rabid dogs as early as ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian texts. The reputation of rabies as being inevitably fatal, together with its ability to affect all mammalian species, contributes to the fear surrounding this disease. However, the widely held view that exposure to the rabies virus is always fatal has been repeatedly challenged. Although survival following clinical infection in humans has only been recorded on a handful of occasions, a number of studies have reported detection of rabies-specific antibodies in the sera of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife that are apparently healthy and unvaccinated. These 'seropositive' individuals provide possible evidence of exposure to the rabies virus that has not led to fatal disease. However, the variability in methods of detecting these antibodies and the difficulties of interpreting serology tests have contributed to an unclear picture of their importance. In this review, we consider the evidence for rabies-specific antibodies in healthy, unvaccinated individuals as indicators of nonlethal rabies exposure and the potential implications of this for rabies epidemiology. Our findings indicate that whilst there is substantial evidence that nonlethal rabies exposure does occur, serology studies that do not use appropriate controls and cutoffs are unlikely to provide an accurate estimate of the true prevalence of nonlethal rabies exposure.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
The sylvatic cycle of rabies, caused by the Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), is maintained in the American Continent by aerial and terrestrial wild mammals. In this study, we combined passive surveillance of...
An outbreak of rabies occurred in a captive colony of wild-caught big brown bats (). Five of 27 bats exhibited signs of rabies virus infection 22-51 d after capture or 18-22 d after contact with the i...
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Rabies immune globulin is a product that is lifesaving to unvaccinated individuals exposed to the rabies virus. Rabies immune globulin is made from plasma from immune donors. Currently the...
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This is single site, randomized, blinded comparison of the immunogenicity, of Imovax (RVi) and Rabavert (RVa) rabies vaccines when subjects are administered rabies immune globulin (RIG) or...
Rabies infection is a disease that is caused by a virus and which is transmitted in many countries by rabid animals (dogs, monkeys, bats, etc.) through bites, scratches or licking of wound...
x-ray has been proven to kill Rabies virus in vitro, so the investigators can use it in treatment of rabies infected patients.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
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