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Primary cilia are lost during cancer development, but the mechanism regulating cilia degeneration is not determined. While transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) protects cells from oxidative, proteotoxic, and metabolic stress in normal cells, hyperactivation of NRF2 is oncogenic, although the detailed molecular mechanisms by which uncontrolled NRF2 activation promotes cancer progression remain unclear. Here, we report that NRF2 suppresses hedgehog (Hh) signaling through Patched 1 (PTCH1) and primary ciliogenesis via p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1). PTCH1, a negative regulator of Hh signaling, is an NRF2 target gene, and as such, hyperactivation of NRF2 impairs Hh signaling. NRF2 also suppresses primary cilia formation through p62-dependent inclusion body formation and blockage of Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) entrance into cilia. Simultaneous ablation of PTCH1 and p62 completely abolishes NRF2-mediated inhibition of both primary ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified role of NRF2 in controlling a cellular organelle, the primary cilium, and its associated Hh signaling pathway and also uncover a mechanism by which NRF2 hyperactivation promotes tumor progression via primary cilia degeneration and aberrant Hh signaling. A better understanding of the crosstalk between NRF2 and primary cilia/Hh signaling could not only open new avenues for cancer therapeutic discovery but could also have significant implications regarding pathologies other than cancer, including developmental disorders, in which improper primary ciliogenesis and Hh signaling play a major role.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
The conserved Hedgehog signaling pathway has well-established roles in development. However, its function during adulthood remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether the Hedgehog signaling...
Primary cilium is an antenna-like microtubule-based cellular sensing structure. Abnormal regulation of the dynamic assembly and disassembly cycle of primary cilia is closely related to ciliopathy and ...
Cilia are microtubule-based, cell-surface projections whose machinery is evolutionarily conserved. In vertebrates, cilia are observed on almost every cell type and are either motile or immotile. Immot...
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A frizzled-like, G-protein-coupled receptor that associates with PATCHED RECEPTORS to transduce signals from HEDGEHOG PROTEINS and initiate hedgehog signaling to ZINC FINGER PROTEIN GLI1. It may normally inhibit signaling in the absence of SONIC HEDGEHOG PROTEIN binding to PATCHED RECEPTOR-1.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A patched receptor for several HEDGEHOG PROTEINS that associates with the SMOOTHENED RECEPTOR to modulate hedgehog signaling. It is also a TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN; mutations in the patched-1 gene are associated with BASAL CELL NEVUS SYNDROME; SQUAMOUS CELL CARCNIOMA of the ESOPHAGUS; trichoepitheliomas, and CARCINOMA, TRANSITIONAL CELL of the URINARY BLADDER.
Non-visual system arrestins that negatively regulate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS (GPCRs) and may also function independently of GPCR signaling. They bind and recruit many different signaling factors, including MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; SRC-FAMILY-KINASES; and FILAMIN to GPCRs and may recognize different phosphorylation states of the receptors to determine the specificity of the cellular response to signaling.
A transcriptional activator that contains five adjacent CYS2-HIS2 ZINC FINGERS. It functions in the hedgehog signaling pathway and is required for normal embryonic development. Mutations in the GLI2 gene are associated with type 9 HOLOPROSENCEPHALY and type 2 PALLISTER-HALL SYNDROME.
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