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Axonal morphology displays large variability and complexity, yet the canonical regularities of the cortex suggest that such wiring is based on the repeated initiation of a small set of genetically encoded rules. Extracting underlying developmental principles can hence shed light on what genetically encoded instructions must be available during cortical development. Within a generative model, we investigate growth rules for axonal branching patterns in cat area 17, originating from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. This target area of synaptic connections is characterized by extensive ramifications and a high bouton density, characteristics thought to preserve the spatial resolution of receptive fields and to enable connections for the ocular dominance columns. We compare individual and global statistics, such as a newly introduced length-weighted asymmetry index and the global segment-length distribution, of generated and biological branching patterns as the benchmark for growth rules. We show that the proposed model surpasses the statistical accuracy of the Galton-Watson model, which is the most commonly employed model for biological growth processes. In contrast to the Galton-Watson model, our model can recreate the log-normal segment-length distribution of the experimental dataset and is considerably more accurate in recreating individual axonal morphologies. To provide a biophysical interpretation for statistical quantifications of the axonal branching patterns, the generative model is ported into the physically accurate simulation framework of Cx3D. In this 3D simulation environment we demonstrate how the proposed growth process can be formulated as an interactive process between genetic growth rules and chemical cues in the local environment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS computational biology
Appropriate axonal growth and connectivity are essential for functional wiring of the brain. Joubert syndrome-related disorders (JSRD), a group of ciliopathies in which mutations disrupt primary cilia...
We have previously shown that the physiological size of postsynaptic currents maximises energy efficiency rather than information transfer across the retinothalamic relay synapse. Here, we investigate...
The pulvinar is the largest extrageniculate visual nucleus in mammals. Given its extensive reciprocal connectivity with the visual cortex, it allows the cortico-thalamocortical transfer of visual info...
As cancer advances, cells often spread from the primary tumor to other parts of the body and form metastases. This is the main cause of cancer related mortality. Here we investigate a conceptually sim...
Although some studies have supported the effects of caffeine for treatment of Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there were no evidences about its effects at the neuronal level. In t...
The focus of this investigation is to compare the effectiveness of the AAC Generative Language Intervention approach to an AAC Standard of Care condition on preschool sentence productions....
A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Study of the Effects of Glatiramer Acetate (GA) on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) and Visual Function in Patients With a First Episode of Acute Optic Neuritis (AON). (Octagon)
The main objective of the study is to determine whether GA 20mg SC once daily reduces the amount of axonal loss in the optic nerve (measured by RFNL thickness) after a first event of AON c...
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may show chronic signs of optic neuropathy (CON) that may follow acute optic neuritis (secondary form of CON, S-CON) or occur independently of any acu...
This study will interest in the pathophysiology of silent retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis. Recent studies have suggested that silent retinal axonal loss (no past history of optic...
GSK249320 is a monoclonal antibody directed against myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), a protein that inhibits axonal regeneration. GSK249320 acts as a MAG antagonist, and through this...
Qualified professionals trained in primary eye and vision care, including measurement of visual abilities, diagnosing disorders of the visual system and provision of treatment such as prescriptions for correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses and vision therapy.
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
First segment of axon that connects distal axon segments to the neuronal CELL BODY at the axon hillock region. The axon initial segment is not protected by the MYELIN SHEATH and has properties critical for axonal growth. The axon initial segment and the axon hillock form an axonal trigger zone.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...