RHS-elements function as type II toxin-antitoxin modules that regulate intra-macrophage replication of Salmonella Typhimurium.

07:00 EST 13th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "RHS-elements function as type II toxin-antitoxin modules that regulate intra-macrophage replication of Salmonella Typhimurium."

RHS elements are components of conserved toxin-delivery systems, wide-spread within the bacterial kingdom and some of the most positively selected genes known. However, very little is known about how Rhs toxins affect bacterial biology. Salmonella Typhimurium contains a full-length rhs gene and an adjacent orphan rhs gene, which lacks the conserved delivery part of the Rhs protein. Here we show that, in addition to the conventional delivery, Rhs toxin-antitoxin pairs encode for functional type-II toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that regulate S. Typhimurium proliferation within macrophages. Mutant S. Typhimurium cells lacking both Rhs toxins proliferate 2-times better within macrophages, mainly because of an increased growth rate. Thus, in addition to providing strong positive selection for the rhs loci under conditions when there is little or no toxin delivery, internal expression of the toxin-antitoxin system regulates growth in the stressful environment found inside macrophages.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PLoS genetics
ISSN: 1553-7404
Pages: e1008607


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Mechanisms that allow bacteria and archaea to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions via a toxin, produced during adverse conditions, that inhibits a specific vital process, and a partner antitoxin that blocks the effects of the toxin, under normal growth conditions.

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Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.

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