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The Rab GTPase activating protein known as Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160 or TBC1D4) regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, the heart, and white adipose tissue (WAT). A novel rat AS160-knockout (AS160-KO) was created with CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Because female AS160-KO versus wild type (WT) rats had not been previously evaluated, the primary objective of this study was to compare female AS160-KO rats with WT controls for multiple, important metabolism-related endpoints. Body mass and composition, physical activity, and energy expenditure were not different between genotypes. AS160-KO versus WT rats were glucose intolerant based on an oral glucose tolerance test (P<0.001) and insulin resistant based on a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC; P<0.001). Tissue glucose uptake during the HEC of female AS160-KO versus WT rats was: 1) significantly lower in epitrochlearis (P<0.05) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL; P<0.01) muscles of AS160-KO compared to WT rats; 2) not different in soleus, gastrocnemius or WAT; and 3) ~3-fold greater in the heart (P<0.05). GLUT4 protein content was reduced in AS160-KO versus WT rats in the epitrochlearis (P<0.05), EDL (P<0.05), gastrocnemius (P<0.05), soleus (P<0.05), WAT (P<0.05), and the heart (P<0.005). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by isolated epitrochlearis and soleus muscles was lower (P<0.001) in AS160-KO versus WT rats. Akt phosphorylation of insulin-stimulated tissues was not different between the genotypes. A secondary objective was to probe processes that might account for the genotype-related increase in myocardial glucose uptake, including glucose transporter protein abundance (GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT8, SGLT1), hexokinase II protein abundance, and stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. None of these parameters differed between genotypes. Metabolic phenotyping in the current study revealed AS160 deficiency produced a profound glucoregulatory phenotype in female AS160-KO rats that was strikingly similar to the results previously reported in male AS160-KO rats.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 184.108.40.206.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
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