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In 2017 and 2018, a total of 294 isolates were collected from bakanae-diseased rice plants in Jinhua, Shaoxing, and Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province, China. Phenamacril sensitivity of these isolates was determined by the 50% effective concentration value or minimum inhibitory concentration methods. Our results indicated that the phenamacril resistance frequency of increased from 18% in 2017 to 47% in 2018, and rice plants infected with -resistant isolates could not be protected effectively with 50 mg/liter of phenamacril. Phenamacril-resistant isolates obtained from rice fields showed stable resistance, because their fitness levels (i.e., mycelial growth, sporulation, and pathogenicity) were similar to the phenamacril-sensitive isolates. In addition to the point mutation at codon 219 in the - gene that conferred resistance to phenamacril, our results also showed another point mutation at codon 218 (AAG→ACG) in -5 that also conferred resistance to phenamacril. In this study, we found rapid development and persistence of diversified genotypes of phenamacril resistance, highlighting the importance of proper use of phenamacril in rice fields. Our results may also help researchers develop new fungicides or new control strategies using combinations of different fungicides in the control of phenamacril-resistant isolates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
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Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A subclass of myosin found in ACANTHAMOEBA. It is a non-filamentous myosin containing a single 180-kDa myosin heavy chain.
The anamorphic form of the fungus MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA and the most important pathogen of rice worldwide. It causes rice blast which prevents maturation of the rice grains.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...