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Grape powdery mildew (GPM) fungicide programs consist of 5 to 15 applications, depending on region or market, in an attempt to achieve the high fruit quality standards demanded by the market. Understanding how fungicides redistribute and targeting redistributing fungicide to critical crop phenological stages could improve fungicide protection of grape clusters. This study evaluated fungicide redistribution in grapevines from major fungicide groups labeled for GPM control. Translaminar and xylem redistribution was examined by placing fungicide-impregnated filter disks on the adaxial or abaxial leaf surface of detached leaves for 10 min and then incubating for 48 h before inoculating the abaxial surface with conidia. Vapor redistribution used Teflon disks sprayed with fungicides and placed on the abaxial leaf surface of detached leaves 48 h before inoculation. Disease development was rated 10 days later. Translaminar movement through calyptra was tested using flowering potted vines. All fungicides tested redistributed through at least one mechanism. Fungicide timing at critical phenological stages (early, mid, and late bloom) was assessed in small plots of cultivar Pinot noir vines. The application of trifloxystrobin, quinoxyfen, or fluopyram at different bloom stages showed that applications initiated at end of bloom resulted in the lowest berry infection probabilities of 0.073, 0.097, and 0.020, respectively. The results of this study suggest that integrating two carefully timed applications of redistributing fungicides initiated at end of bloom into a fungicide program may be an effective strategy for wine grape growers in western Oregon to produce fruit with low GPM infection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
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The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
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The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
Individual's ability to manage the symptoms, treatment, physical and psychosocial consequences and lifestyle changes inherent in living with a chronic condition. Efficacious self-management encompasses ability to monitor one's condition and to effect the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses necessary to maintain a satisfactory quality of life.
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