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Epigenetic changes influence gene expression and contribute to the modulation of biological processes in response to the environment. Transgenerational epigenetic changes in gene expression have been described in many eukaryotes. However, plants appear to have a stronger propensity for inheriting novel epialleles. This mini-review discusses how plant traits, such as meristematic growth, totipotency and incomplete epigenetic erasure in gametes promote epiallele inheritance. Additionally, we highlight how plant biology may be inherently tailored to reap the benefits of epigenetic metastability. Importantly, environmentally-triggered small RNA expression and subsequent epigenetic changes may allow immobile plants to adapt themselves, and possibly their progeny, to thrive in local environments. The change of epigenetic states through the passage of generations has ramifications for evolution in the natural and agricultural world. In populations containing little genetic diversity, such as elite crop germplasm or habitually self-reproducing species, epigenetics may provide an important source of heritable phenotypic variation. Basic understanding of the processes that direct epigenetic shifts in the genome may allow for breeding or bioengineering for improved plant traits that do not require changes to DNA sequence.
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Inherited information not encoded in the DNA sequence can regulate a variety of complex phenotypes. However, how this epigenetic information escapes the typical epigenetic erasure that occurs upon fer...
Epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance have come to occupy a prominent place in our understanding of living systems, primarily eukaryotes. There has been considerable and lively discussion of the possib...
A defining feature of sexual reproduction is the transmission of genomic information from both parents to the offspring. There is now compelling evidence that the inheritance of such genetic informati...
Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance potentially impacts disease etiology, phenotypic variation, and evolution. An increasing number of environmental factors from nutrition to toxicants have been ...
Increasing evidence suggests that non-communicable diseases such as in particular obesity and its associated metabolic diseases are inherited from parents to children throughout several ge...
The general aims of this project are (i) to identify predictive epigenetic biomarkers of lung disease severity in Cystic Fibrosis, (ii) to characterize a non-invasive cellular model, spont...
This study aims to explore whether the increased supply of dietary plant sterols and plant stanols have any influence on serum levels of phytosterols and on consistency of carotid atheroma...
The aim is to investigate the effects of yoghurt drinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately h...
This randomized controlled double-blind intervention study unravels influence of dietary plant sterols and stanols on the structure and the sterol composition of the human aortic valve. Th...
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...