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The ability to predict tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra from peptide sequences can significantly enhance our understanding of the peptide fragmentation process and could improve peptide identification in proteomics. However, current approaches for predicting high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) spectra are limited to predict the intensities of expected ion types, i.e., the a/b/c/x/y/z ions and their neutral loss derivatives (referred to as backbone ions). In practice, backbone ions only account for <70% of total ion intensities in HCD spectra, indicating many intense ions are ignored by current predictors. In this paper, we present a deep learning approach that can predict the complete spectra (both backbone and non-backbone ions) directly from peptide sequences. We made no assumptions or expectations on which kind of ions to predict but instead predicting the intensities for all possible m/z. Training this model needs no annotations of fragment ion nor any prior knowledge of the fragmentation rules. Our analyses show that the predicted 2+ and 3+ HCD spectra are highly similar to the experimental spectra, with average full-spectrum cosine similarities of 0.820 (+/- 0.088) and 0.786 (+/- 0.085), respectively, very close to the similarities between the experimental replicated spectra. In contrast, the best-performed backbone only models can only achieve an average similarity below 0.75 and 0.70 for 2+ and 3+ spectra, respectively. Furthermore, we developed a multi-task learning (MTL) approach for predicting spectra of insufficient training samples, which allows our model to make accurate predictions for electron transfer dissociation (ETD) spectra and HCD spectra of less abundant charges (1+ and 4+).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical chemistry
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A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The full spectrum of FUNGI that exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
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