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Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) in Primary Care.

07:00 EST 15th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) in Primary Care."

Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is caused by inhaling airborne spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Residing in or traveling to areas endemic for Coccidioides is required for the diagnosis; no person-to-person or zoonotic contagion occurs. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis is increasing in endemic areas, and it has been identified as the cause of as many as 17% to 29% of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia in some regions. Obtaining a travel history is recommended when evaluating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis usually relies on enzyme immunoassay with immunodiffusion confirmation, but these tests may not be positive for one to three weeks after disease onset. Antifungal agents are not recommended for treatment unless the patient is at risk of or shows signs of complicated or disseminated infection. When antifungals are used, fluconazole and itraconazole are most commonly recommended, except during pregnancy. Treatment may continue for as long as three to 12 months, although lifetime treatment is indicated for patients with coccidioidal meningitis. Monitoring of complement fixation titers and chest radiography is recommended until patients stabilize and symptoms resolve. In patients who are treated with antifungals, complement fixation titers should be followed for at least two years.

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Name: American family physician
ISSN: 1532-0650
Pages: 221-228

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.

An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.

A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.

Techniques or methods of patient care used by nurses as primary careproviders.

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