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Metal halide perovskites have recently attracted enormous attention for photovoltaic applications due to their superior optical and electrical properties. Lead (Pb) halide perovskites stand out among this material series, with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 25%. According to the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit, lead halide perovskites typically exhibit bandgaps that are not within the optimal range for single-junction solar cells. Partial or complete replacement of lead with tin (Sn) is gaining increasing research interest, due to the promise of further narrowing the bandgaps. This enables ideal solar utilization for single-junction solar cells as well as the construction of all-perovskite tandem solar cells. In addition, the usage of Sn provides a path to the fabrication of lead-free or Pb-reduced perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Recent progress in addressing the challenges of fabricating efficient Sn halide and mixed lead-tin (Pb-Sn) halide PSCs is summarized herein. Mixed Pb-Sn halide perovskites hold promise not only for higher efficiency and more stable single-junction solar cells but also for efficient all-perovskite monolithic tandem solar cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
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Formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth capsule which can progress toward the STAPES (stapedial fixation) or anteriorly toward the COCHLEA leading to conductive, sensorineural, or mixed HEARING LOSS. Several genes are associated with familial otosclerosis with varied clinical signs.
Injury to the nervous system secondary to exposure to lead compounds. Two distinct clinical patterns occur in children (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, CHILDHOOD) and adults (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, ADULT). In children, lead poisoning typically produces an encephalopathy. In adults, exposure to toxic levels of lead is associated with a peripheral neuropathy.
Poisoning that results from chronic or acute ingestion, injection, inhalation, or skin absorption of LEAD or lead compounds.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Endogenous superantigens responsible for inducing strong proliferative responses in T-cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions (see LYMPHOCYTE CULTURE TEST, MIXED). They are encoded by mouse mammary tumor viruses that have integrated into the germ line as DNA proviruses (MINOR LYMPHOCYTE STIMULATORY LOCI).