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Shade is a potential threat to many plant species. When shade-intolerant plants detect neighbours, they elongate their stems and leaves in an effort to maximise their light capture. This developmental programme, known as 'shade-avoidance' is tightly controlled by specialised photoreceptors and a suite of transcriptional regulators. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors are particularly important for shade-induced elongation. In recent years it has become apparent that many members of this family heterodimerise and that together they form a complex regulatory network. This review summarises recent work into the structure of the bHLH network and how it regulates elongation growth. In addition to this, we highlight how photoreceptors modulate the function of the network via direct interaction with transcription factors. It is hoped that the information integrated in this review will provide a useful theoretical framework for future studies on the molecular basis of shade-avoidance in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiologia plantarum
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A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.
A highly-conserved family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. They function as dimers with other bHLH proteins and bind E-BOX ELEMENTS to control gene expression during EMBRYOGENESIS and the EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION.
DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.