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The ciliate Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is the most prominent protist in the guts of grass carp, where it mainly inhabits the creamy luminal contents of the hindgut. Ciliates are generally colonized by microorganisms via phagotrophic feeding. In order to study the intracellular bacteria in this ciliate, we have successfully established it in in-vitro culture. Herein, we investigated and compared the bacterial community structures of cultured and freshly collected B. ctenopharyngodoni. The results showed that these two groups exhibited different bacterial communities. The most abundant bacterial family in freshly collected samples was Enterobacteriaceae, while in cultured samples it was Fusobacteriaceae. In addition, a key intracellular bacterium, Cetobacterium somerae, was identified in the cytoplasm of cultured ciliates using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This study shows that ciliates can retain the intracellular bacteria acquired in the natural habitat for quite a long time, but the bacterial community structure of ciliates eventually changes after a long period of cultivation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology
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Infection by parasites of the genus BALANTIDIUM. The presence of Balantidium in the LARGE INTESTINE leads to DIARRHEA; DYSENTERY; and occasionally ULCER.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.