Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Monocytic-lineage cells in the central nervous system (CNS), including microglia and brain resident macrophages, are the key players in the CNS innate immunity against viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, these cells also serve as the major targets and reservoirs for HIV in the CNS. To address the question of how HIV can establish persistent infection in the target cells in the CNS, we examined whether HIV has the ability to counteract Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation-mediated antiviral immunity in microglia and macrophages. We observed that HIV latently infected microglial cells (HC69.5) expressed reduced levels of TLR3 and TLR3 activation-mediated interferons (IFN-α/β and IFN-λ) as compared with the uninfected control cells (C20). In addition, HIV infection of primary human macrophages suppressed the expression of TLR3 and the IFNs. HIV infection also inhibited the expression of the antiviral ISGs and the HIV-restriction miRNAs. Mechanistically, HIV infection inhibited the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7) and signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT1 and STAT3) in both HIV latently infected microglia and acutely infected macrophages. These findings provide previously unrecognized and sound mechanisms for HIV infection and persistence in the primary target and reservoir cells in the brain.
This article was published in the following journal.
RIG-I-MAVS antiviral signaling represents an important pathway to stimulate interferon production and confer innate immunity to the host. Upon binding to viral RNA and Riplet-mediated polyubiquitinati...
Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was previously shown to contribute to the generation of epileptic seizures in rodents by evoking a proinflammatory response in the forebrain. This suggests th...
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) constitute an important component of animal and human genomes and are usually silenced by epigenetic mechanisms in adult cells. Although ERVs were recently reported to b...
It is known that lethal viruses profoundly manipulate host metabolism, but how the metabolism alternation affects the immediate host antiviral immunity remains elusive. Here, we report that the O-GlcN...
γ-interferon-inducible protein-16 (IFI16), a key DNA sensor, triggers downstream STING-dependent type I interferon (IFN-I) production and antiviral immunity. However, it is still unclear how to negat...
Patients with schizophrenia have volume loss in gray matter. This study is designed to evaluate whether their is microglia activation in schizophrenia using [11C](R)-PK11195 PET.
Cervical cancer the most frequent neoplasm and the fifth mortality rate of malignancies of the women in the world. It results in about 1,000 women in Taiwan and about 200,000 women worldwi...
The main objective of this study is to compare microglia activation as measured with PET in combination with the tracer [11C]-R-PK11195 between recent-onset schizophrenia patients who are ...
CMV infection and disease remain a significant clinical challenge for pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Current prevention strategies are limited to prophylaxis in which a...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, especially in patients received haploid...
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...