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Both subsets of MCs including MC (tryptase-positive, chymase-positive) and MC (tryptase-positive, chymase-negative) are present in the testis and epididymis. Increased number of MCs, higher levels of MC- released tryptase in testis and seminal plasma of males with fertility problems and promoting sperm motility in individuals with oligozoospermia after using MC blockers, provide evidence that MCs may play a role in male infertility/subfertility disturbances. MC- released tryptase and histamine contribute to the fibrosis and may disrupt spermatogenesis. MCs not only influence the process of spermatogenesis but also have effects on the function of other testis residing cells. MC-derived histamine may influence the steroidogenesis of Leydig cells by acting through H1R and H2R receptors. Additionally, the interaction between MCs released ATP and P2X receptors expressed on the peritubular cells may induce the production of the proinflammatory mediators by peritubular cells. Further Investigations showed that MCs may be involved in the pathology of female infertility during implantation, pregnancy, and abortion. In the uterus, MC subtype is abundant in myometrium and adjacent basal layer while MC subtype is distributed in all layers. MCs in response to hormones mainly estradiol and progesterone become activated and release a wide range of mediators including histamine, VEGF, proteases, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) that have a role in different stages of pregnancy. An increasing influx of MCs to the cervix during the pregnancy occurs that helps to the physiologic cervical ripening. While MMPs degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), VEGF modulates neovascularization and histamine influences the embryo implantation. MC-derived histamine may have a positive effect during implantation due to its participation in tissue remodeling. MC proteases including tryptase and chymase activate the precursors of MMP2 and MMP9 to mediate ECM degradation during the physiologic menstrual cycle. There is a line of evidence that MCs have a role in abortion by releasing TNF-α.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
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Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
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