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Regulation of mRNA translation by a photoriboswitch.

07:00 EST 13th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Regulation of mRNA translation by a photoriboswitch."

Optogenetic tools have revolutionized the study of receptor-mediated processes, but such tools are lacking for RNA-controlled systems. In particular, light-activated regulatory RNAs are needed for spatiotemporal control of gene expression. To fill this gap, we used selection to isolate a novel riboswitch that selectively binds the isoform of a stiff-stilbene (amino-SS)-a rapidly and reversibly photoisomerizing small molecule. Structural probing revealed that the RNA binds amino-SS about 100-times stronger than the photoisoform (amino-SS). and functional analysis showed that the riboswitch, termed Werewolf-1 (Were-1), inhibits translation of a downstream open reading frame when bound to amino-SS. Photoisomerization of the ligand with a sub-millisecond pulse of light induced the protein expression. In contrast, amino-SS supported protein expression, which was inhibited upon photoisomerization to amino-SS. Reversible photoregulation of gene expression using a genetically encoded RNA will likely facilitate high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of complex RNA processes.

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Name: eLife
ISSN: 2050-084X
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.

The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.

An RNA-binding protein characterized by three RNA RECOGNITION MOTIFS. It binds to AU RICH ELEMENTS in the 3'-untranslated regions of mRNA and regulates alternative pre-RNA splicing and mRNA translation; it may also function in APOPTOSIS. Mutations in the TIA-1 gene are associated with WELANDER DISTAL MYOPATHY.

Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.

Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.

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