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Optogenetic tools have revolutionized the study of receptor-mediated processes, but such tools are lacking for RNA-controlled systems. In particular, light-activated regulatory RNAs are needed for spatiotemporal control of gene expression. To fill this gap, we used selection to isolate a novel riboswitch that selectively binds the isoform of a stiff-stilbene (amino-SS)-a rapidly and reversibly photoisomerizing small molecule. Structural probing revealed that the RNA binds amino-SS about 100-times stronger than the photoisoform (amino-SS). and functional analysis showed that the riboswitch, termed Werewolf-1 (Were-1), inhibits translation of a downstream open reading frame when bound to amino-SS. Photoisomerization of the ligand with a sub-millisecond pulse of light induced the protein expression. In contrast, amino-SS supported protein expression, which was inhibited upon photoisomerization to amino-SS. Reversible photoregulation of gene expression using a genetically encoded RNA will likely facilitate high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of complex RNA processes.
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Most eukaryotic mRNAs maintain a 5' cap structure and 3' poly(A) tail, cis-acting elements that are often separated by thousands of nucleotides. Nevertheless, multiple paradigms exist where mRNA 5' an...
In unstressed conditions, the cap-binding protein, eIF4E, binds the 5' cap structure (m7G) on mRNA and recruits other translation initiation factors to bring the ribosome to the mRNA. Bruns et al. sh...
The recruitment of mRNA onto the ribosome not only affects global translation, but also the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of eukaryotic translation initiation. The eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 (e...
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is no longer considered as a mere informational molecule whose sole function is to convey the genetic information specified by DNA to the ribosome. Beyond this primary function, m...
The process of creating a translation-competent mRNA is highly complex and involves numerous steps including transcription, splicing, addition of modifications, and, finally, export to the cytoplasm. ...
Human heart failure (HF) has been associated with reduced cardiac sodium channel current and other electrical remodeling. Recently, the investigators have shown that downregulation of card...
DNA Acetylation can be responsible for significant down-regulation of transcription of the Norepinephrine Transporter (NET). NET is an important clearance transporter that removes norepine...
Aging cause specific changes in the immune system. Processes like "immunoessence" and "inflammaging" offend the functioning of the immune cells and expose the elderly patient to infections...
The clinical study will assess the safety and tolerability of escalating intratumoral doses of mRNA 2752 in patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumor malignancies or lymphoma.
Objectives: To identify the respective contributions of back-translations and of the expert committee in the process of cultural adaptation of patient reported outcome with an experimental...
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
An RNA-binding protein characterized by three RNA RECOGNITION MOTIFS. It binds to AU RICH ELEMENTS in the 3'-untranslated regions of mRNA and regulates alternative pre-RNA splicing and mRNA translation; it may also function in APOPTOSIS. Mutations in the TIA-1 gene are associated with WELANDER DISTAL MYOPATHY.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Proteins that specifically bind to RNA CAPS and form nuclear cap binding protein complexes. In addition to stabilizing the 5' end of mRNAs, they serve a diverse array of functions such as enhancing mRNA transport out of the CELL NUCLEUS and regulating MRNA TRANSLATION in the CYTOPLASM.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...