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The non-enzymatic glycosylation is a very common phenomenon in the physiological conditions which is mediated by distinct chemical entities containing reactive carbonyl species (RCS) and participate in the modification of various macromolecules particularly proteins. Till date, various carbonyl species, i.e., glucose, fructose, D-ribose and methylglyoxal have been used frequently to assess the in-vitro non-enzymatic glycosylation. Similarly, 2'-Deoxyribose is one of the most abundant reducing sugar of the living organisms which forms the part of deoxyribonucleic acid and may react with proteins leading to the production of glycation intermediates, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and highly reactive RCS. Thymidine phosphorylase derived degradation of thymidine contributes to the formation of 2'-Deoxyribose, therefore, acting as a major source of cellular 2'-Deoxyribose. Since albumin is a major serum protein which plays various roles including binding and transporting endogenous and exogenous ligands, it is more prone to be modified through different physiological modifiers; therefore it may serve as a model protein for in-vitro experiments to study the effect of 2'Deoxyribose mediated modifications in the protein. In this study, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was glycated with 50 and 100 mM 2'-Deoxyribose followed by examining secondary and tertiary structural modifications in BSA as compared to its native (unmodified) form by using various physicochemical techniques. We evident a significant modification in 2'-Deoxyribose-glycated BSA which was confirmed through increased hyperchromicity, keto amine moieties, carbonyl and hydroxymethyl furfural content, fluorescent AGEs, altered secondary structure conformers (α helix and β sheets), band shift in the amide-I region and diminished free lysine and free arginine content. These modifications were reported to be higher in 100 mM 2'-Deoxyribose-glycated BSA than 50 mM 2'-Deoxyribose-glycated BSA. Our findings also demonstrated that the rate of glycation is positively affected by the increased concentration of 2'-Deoxyribose. The results of the performed study can be implied to uncover the phenomenon of serum protein damage caused by 2'-Deoxyribose leading towards diabetic complications and number of AGE-related diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current protein & peptide science
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A heterogeneous group of compounds derived from rearrangements, oxidation, and cross-linking reactions that follow from non-enzymatic glycation of amino groups in proteins. They are also know as Maillard products. Their accumulation in vivo accelerates under hyperglycemic, oxidative, or inflammatory conditions. Heat also accelerates the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such seen with the browning of food during cooking under or over high heat.
A secondary structure of proteins that is a right-handed helix or coil, where each amino (N-H) group of the peptide backbone contributes a hydrogen bond to the carbonyl(C=O) group of the amino acid four residues N-terminal to it (n-4). It is the most common type of secondary structure.
A single-pass transmembrane CELL SURFACE RECEPTOR that binds ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS to mediate cellular responses to both acute and chronic vascular inflammation in conditions such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS and DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2. It also binds AMYLOID BETA PEPTIDES and the ALARMINS - S100A12 and S100 CALCIUM BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 220.127.116.11.
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