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Eating is necessary for survival, but it is also one of the great pleasures enjoyed by human beings. Research to date shows that palatable food can be rewarding in a similar way to drugs of abuse, indicating a considerable comorbidity between eating disorders and substance-use disorders. Analysis of the common characteristics of both types of disorder has led to a new wave of studies proposing a Gateway Theory of food as a vulnerability factor that modulates the development of drug addiction. The homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms of feeding overlap with some of the mechanisms implicated in drug abuse, and their interaction plays a crucial role in the development of drug addiction. Studies in animal models have shown how palatable food sensitizes the reward circuit and makes individuals more sensitive to other substances of abuse, such as cocaine or alcohol. However, when palatable food is administered continuously as a model of obesity, the consequences are different, and studies provide controversial data. In the present review we will cover the main homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms that regulate palatable food intake behavior, and will explain, using animal models, how different types of diet and their intake patterns have direct consequences on the rewarding effects of psychostimulants and ethanol.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current pharmaceutical design
Food advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has i...
Research investigating neural responses to visual food stimuli has produced inconsistent results. Crucially, high-caloric palatable foods have a double-sided nature - they are often craved but are als...
Addiction and eating disorders involve brain reward circuits. Binge eating predisposes to addictive behavior, while the cessation of exposure to drugs of abuse leads to reward activities, including in...
This study investigated whether unsuccessful dieters show heightened visual attention to food cues in TV content and how visual attention influences subsequent unhealthy food intake. This study adds t...
Food reward has been studied with highly palatable stimuli that come from natural additives such as sucrose. The most common food additive is sucralose, a noncaloric sweetener present in many food pro...
The proposed pilot study will assess whether ingestion of a classic hallucinogen (psilocybin) leads to changes in emotion processing and neural circuitry that may predict repeated self-adm...
The primary aim of the study is to evaluate how GIP receptor activation influence food intake and mechanisms regulating food intake in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes that are in st...
Increased portion sizes of foods high in energy density (calories per gram of food) have been implicated in the obesity epidemic. Numerous studies show that children and adults eat more fr...
Most of the decisions and actions affecting energy balance are driven by implicit and explicit motivational processes. In modern obesogenic environment where highly palatable and energy-de...
Meal size is strongly influenced by a number of external features of the food environment which can promote over-consumption, such as the availability of palatable energy dense foods and l...
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
Drug formulations or delivery systems intended to discourage the abuse of CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES. These may include physical barriers to prevent chewing or crushing the drug; chemical barriers that prevent extraction of psychoactive ingredients; agonist-antagonist combinations to reduce euphoria associated with abuse; aversion, where controlled substances are combined with others that will produce an unpleasant effect if the patient manipulates the dosage form or exceeds the recommended dose; delivery systems that are resistant to abuse such as implants; or combinations of these methods.
The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...