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Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in the environment and are widely used in medical science (e.g. bioimaging, diagnosis, and drug therapy delivery). Due to unique physicochemical properties, they are able to cross many barriers, which is not possible for traditional drugs. Nevertheless, exposure to NPs and their following interactions with organelles and macromolecules can result in negative effects on cells, especially, they can induce cytotoxicity, epigenicity, genotoxicity, and cell death. Lipid-based nanomaterials (LNPs) are one of the most important achievements in drug delivery mainly due to their superior physicochemical and biological characteristics, particularly its safety. Although they are considered as the completely safe nanocarriers in biomedicine, the lipid composition, the surfactant, emulsifier, and stabilizer used in the LNP preparation, and surface electrical charge are important factors that might influence the toxicity of LNPs. According to the author's opinion, their toxicity profile should be evaluated case-by-case regarding the intended applications. Since there is a lack of all-inclusive review on the various aspects of LNPs with an emphasis on toxicological profiles including cyto-genotoxiciy, this comprehensive and critical review is outlined.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in toxicology
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Synthesis, metabolism, and poisoning associated with drugs, pharmaceuticals, and other active molecules. Toxicological phenomena also include the adverse effects of physical phenomena such as RADIATION and NOISE.
The properties and processes of drug, toxin, and poison metabolism, and their interactions and effects on biological systems. Toxicological phenomena also include the adverse effects of physical phenomena such as RADIATION and NOISE.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Clinical, therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to optimal disease management based on individual variations in a patient's genetic profile.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
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