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Modeling flow and transport using both temperature and dye tracing provides constraints that can improve understanding of karst networks. A laminar flow and transport model using the Finite Element Subsurface Flow Model (FEFLOW) simulated the conduit connection between a sinking stream and spring in central Pennsylvania to evaluate how conduit morphology might affect dye transport. Single and overly tortuous conduit models resulted in high concentrations as dye flowed back into the conduit from the matrix after dye injections ceased. A forked conduit model diverted flow from the main conduit, reducing falling limb dye concentration. Latin Hypercube Sampling was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of 52 parameter combinations (conduit hydraulic conductivity, conduit cross-sectional area, matrix transmissivity, matrix porosity, and dispersivity) for 4 conduit geometry scenarios. Sensitivity of arrival time for 50% of the dye indicated no parameter combinations which simulate falling limb dye concentrations for tortuous geometries, confirming the importance of the forked geometry regardless of other parameters. Temperature data from high-resolution loggers were then incorporated into the forked conduit model to reproduce seasonal spring temperature using variable sink inflow. Unlike the dye trace models, the thermal models were sensitive to other model parameters, such as conduit cross-sectional area and matrix transmissivity. These results showed this dual approach (dye and temperature) to karst network modeling is useful for 1) exploring the role of conduit and matrix interaction for contaminant storage, 2) constraining karst conduit geometries, which are often poorly understood, and 3) quantifying the effect of seasonal trends on karst aquifers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ground water
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Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
A set of models of how communication impacts and is impacted by subjective experience. Techniques are generated from these models by sequencing of various aspects of the models in order to change someone's internal representations. Neurolinguistic programming is concerned with the patterns or programming created by the interactions among the brain, language, and the body, that produce both effective and ineffective behavior.