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Epichloë festucae is an endophytic fungus that forms a symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. Here we analysed how the metabolome of the ryegrass apoplast changed upon infection of this host with sexual and asexual isolates of E. festucae. A metabolite fingerprinting approach was used to analyse the metabolite composition of apoplastic wash fluid from non-infected and infected L. perenne. Metabolites enriched or depleted in one or both of these treatments were identified using a set of interactive tools. A genetic approach in combination with tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify a novel product of a secondary metabolite gene cluster. Metabolites likely to be present in the apoplast were identified using MarVis in combination with the BioCyc and KEGG databases, and an in-house Epichloë metabolite database. We were able to identify the known endophyte-specific metabolites, peramine and epichloëcyclins, as well as a large number of unknown markers. To determine whether these methods can be applied to the identification of novel Epichloë-derived metabolites, we deleted a gene encoding a NRPS (lgsA) that is highly expressed in planta. Comparative mass spectrometric analysis of apoplastic wash fluid from wild-type- versus mutant-infected plants identified a novel Leu/Ile glycoside metabolite present in the former.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The New phytologist
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Whole-crop triticale silage for dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures in small-scale dairy systems during the dry season in the highlands of Mexico.
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Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle fodder. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
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