Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
While in birds and mammals the cerebellum is a highly convoluted structure that consists of numerous transverse lobules, in most amphibians and reptiles it consists of only a single unfolded sheet. Orthogonal to the lobules, the cerebellum is comprised of sagittal zones that are revealed in the pattern of afferent inputs, the projection patterns of Purkinje cells, and Purkinje cell response properties, among other features. The expression of several molecular markers, such as aldolase C, is also parasagittally organized. Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In birds, mammals, and some lizards (Ctenophoresspp.), ZII is expressed in a heterogenous fashion of alternating sagittal bands of high (ZII+) and low (ZII-) expression Purkinje cells. In contrast, turtles and snakes express ZII homogenously (ZII+) in their cerebella, but the pattern in crocodilians is unknown. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in two crocodilian species (Crocodylus niloticus and Alligator mississippiensis) to help determine the evolutionary origin of striped ZII expression in vertebrates. We expected crocodilians to express ZII in a striped (ZII+/ZII-) manner because of their close phylogenetic relationship to birds and their larger and more folded cerebellum compared to that of snakes and turtles. Contrary to our prediction, all Purkinje cells in the crocodilian cerebellum had a generally homogenous expression of ZII (ZII+) rather than clear ZII+/- stripes. Our results suggest that either ZII stripes were lost in three groups (snakes, turtles, and crocodilians) or ZII stripes evolved independently three times (lizards, birds, and mammals).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain, behavior and evolution
The present study examined temporal activation patterns of rat cerebellar cortical neurons in 4-aminopyridine induced seizures, using c-fos protein as a marker of neuronal activity. C-fos-containing c...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, known as the most common form of dementia. In AD onset, abnormal rRNA expression has been reported to be linked in pathogenesis. Although regio...
The cerebellum improves motor performance by adjusting motor gain appropriately. As de novo protein synthesis is essential for the formation and retention of memories, we hypothesized that motor learn...
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is secreted by prostate, increases in some diseases such as prostate cancer. PAP is also present in the central nervous system. In this study we reveal that α-...
Despite the canonical homogeneous character of its organization, the cerebellum plays differential computational roles in distinct sensorimotor behaviors. Previously we showed that Purkinje cell activ...
The investigators will study the relationship between the basal ganglia and the cerebellum in dystonia by associating cerebellar stimulations with functional magnetic resonance imaging ana...
The aim of the study is to check the role of the cerebellum in time prediction in healthy volunteers, by means of magnetic transcranial stimulation targeted on the cerebellum, and recordin...
Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the cerebellum is active during cognitive performance. The investigators hypothesize that stimulation of the cerebellum with transcranial m...
This study will investigate the how the cerebellum is involved in speech motor learning over time and short-term corrections in patients with cerebellar ataxia and healthy controls. This w...
The goal of this study is to use transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the impact of modulating cerebellar activity on time perception, executive function, and mood and ps...
The front part of hindbrain that lies between MEDULLA OBLONGATA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the CEREBELLUM. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. Pons serves as a relay station for important neural pathways between the cerebellum to the CEREBRUM.
An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...