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Traditionally sex hormones have been associated with reproductive and developmental processes only. Since the 1950s we know that hormones can have organizational effects on the developing brain and initiate hormonal transition periods such as puberty. However, recent evidence shows that sex hormones additionally structure the brain during important hormonal transition periods across a woman's life including short-term fluctuations. during the menstrual cycle. However, a comprehensive review focusing on structural changes during all hormonal transition phases of women is still missing. Therefore, in this review structural changes across hormonal transition periods (i.e. puberty, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive intake, pregnancy and menopause) were investigated in a structured way and correlations with sex hormones evaluated. Results show an overall reduction in gray matter and region-specific decreases in prefrontal, parietal and middle temporal areas during puberty. Across the menstrual cycle gray matter plasticity in the hippocampus, the amygdala as well as temporal- and parietal regions were most consistently reported. Studies reporting on pre- and post-pregnancy measurements revealed volume reductions in midline structures as well as prefrontal- and temporal cortices. During perimenopause, the decline in sex hormones was paralleled with a reduction in hippocampal and parietal cortex volume. Brain volume changes were significantly correlated with estradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels in some studies but directionality remains inconclusive between studies. These results indicate that sex hormones play an important role in shaping women's brain structure during different transition periods and are not restricted to specific developmental periods.
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A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...