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Field observations have suggested that particulate nitrate can promote the aging of black carbon (BC), yet the mechanisms of the aging process and its impacts on BC's light absorption are undetermined. Here we performed laboratory simulation of internal mixing of flame-generated BC aggregates with ammonium nitrate. Variations in particle size, mass, coating thickness, effective density, dynamic shape factor, and optical properties were determined online by a suite of instruments. With the development of coatings, the particle size initially decreased until reaching a coating thickness of ∼10 nm and then started increasing, accompanied by an increase in effective density and a decrease in dynamic shape factor, reflecting the transformation of BC particles from highly fractal to near-spherical morphology. This is partially attributable to the restructuring of BC cores to more compact forms. Exposing coated particles to elevated relative humidity (RH) led to additional BC morphology changes, even after drying. Particle light absorption and scattering were also amplified with ammonium nitrate coating, increasing with coating thickness and RH. For BC particles with a 17.8 nm coating, absorption and scattering were increased by 1.5- and 7.9-fold when cycled through 70% RH (5-70-5% RH), respectively. The irreversible restructuring of the BC core caused by condensation of ammonium nitrate and water altered both absorption and scattering, with a magnitude comparable to or even exceeding the effects of increased coating. Results show that ammonium nitrate is among the most efficient coating materials with respect to modifying BC morphology and optical properties compared with other inorganic and organic species investigated previously. Accordingly, mitigation of nitrate aerosols is necessary for the benefits of both air pollution control and reducing the impacts of BC on visibility impairment and radiative forcing on climate change. Our results also pointed out that the effect of BC core restructuring needs to be considered when evaluating BC's light absorption enhancement.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
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Brief Summary Short description of the protocol intended for the lay public. Include a brief statement of the study hypothesis. (Limit: 5000 characters) Example: The purpose of this study...
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.