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Most phenolic compounds and dietary fiber reach intact to the colon. We hypothesized that grape peel powder (GPP), a rich source of these bioactive compounds, modulates inflammatory and oxidative pathways collaborating to attenuate colonic damage in experimental colitis. To determine which bioactive fraction would be responsible for this effect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with whole GPP or the isolated bioactive-rich fractions from GPP (extractable polyphenols [EP], dietary fiber and fiber-bound polyphenols [NEP-F], and dietary fiber) in rats with experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) after 15 days of dietary supplementation. EP diet did not reverse the decrease in feed intake and indeed worsened colon shortening and increased spleen weight; however, these effects were not observed for the GPP group, which had polyphenols associated to the matrix besides the extractable ones. Colitis impaired the activity of colonic antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, nitric oxide (NO) levels, and proinflammatory cytokines in serum and in the colon tissue. GPP restored the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased colon oxidation and NO levels. All grape peel fractions reduced the protein expression of the inhibitor of kappa kinase beta and NO levels in colon tissue, but only NEP-F reduced the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B and myeloperoxidase activity. Results demonstrated that GPP attenuates inflammatory and oxidative response in TNBS-induced colitis by downregulating the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and upregulating antioxidant enzymes, with NEP-F being the fraction most likely associated to these protective effects.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
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ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
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A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
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