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The ceramic industry is an industrial sector of great impact in the global economy that has been benefiting from advances in materials and processing technologies. Ceramic manufacturing has a strong potential for airborne particle formation and emission, namely of ultrafine particles (UFP) and nanoparticles (NP), meaning that workers of those industries are at risk of potential exposure to these particles. At present, little is known on the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) on the environment and human health and no established Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) or specific regulations to airborne nanoparticles (ANP) exposure exist raising concerns about the possible consequences of such exposure. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on occupational exposure to NP in the ceramic industry and their impact on human health. Possible sources and exposure scenarios, a summary of the existing methods for evaluation and monitoring of ANP in the workplace environment and proposed Nano Reference Values (NRV) for different classes of NP are presented. Case studies on occupational exposure to ANP generated at different stages of the ceramic manufacturing process are described. Finally, the toxicological potential of intentional and unintentional ANP that have been identified in the ceramic industry workplace environment is discussed based on the existing evidence from in vitro and in vivo inhalation toxicity studies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)