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Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans are harmful oral pathogens and prone to resist chemical antimicrobial agents. Active ingredients from plants are of increasing interest as an alternative. This study aims to compare antimicrobial effects of 4-allylpyrocatechol (APC) extracted from Piper betle on these oral pathogens. Minimum concentration of APC against the tested pathogens was determined using a broth microdilution assay. Killing kinetic study of APC was carried out within 24 h. Morphology of the pathogenic cells was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Anti-biofilm was investigated using crystal violet assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that the mechanism of inhibition of APC was bactericidal and fungicidal effects. APC at minimum concentration of 400 μg/mL could completely kill Streptococcus and Candida spp., however, the killing rate on S. intermedius and C. albicans was significantly faster than on S. mutans. APC inhibited biofilm formation of C. albicans more efficiently than that of the bacterial cells. Cell morphology from SEM indicated that APC caused bacterial cell membrane destruction and inhibited fungal budding or tubing formation. CLSM images confirmed the killing potential of APC and suggested that bacterial dead cells could be easier washed out than the fungal dead cells. It is concluded that APC potentially inhibits growth and biofilms of oral Streptococcus and Candida spp. in different mechanism of action and killing rate. APC can be considered as a promising agent for preventing and treating dental disorders caused by S. intermedius, S. mutans, and C. albicans.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of oral biology
Piper betle leaf, used as masticatory in South Asia, is also medicinally important.
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A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...