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Recent advances in microbial electrochemical technologies have revealed the existence of numerous and highly diverse microorganisms able to exchange electrons with electrodes. This diversity could reflect the capacity of microorganisms to release and/or retrieve electrons with each other in natural environments. So far, this interspecies electron transfer has been studied with a special focus on syntrophy and was successfully demonstrated for several couples of species. In this article we argue that electron exchange between microbes exists beyond syntrophy or mutualism and could also promote competitive and even parasitic behaviour. Based on three interesting case studies identified from the literature, we also highlight that such nonmutualistic interactions could be widespread and of particular significance for the survival of pathogens or the shaping of complex microbial communities.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Trends in microbiology
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An autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, and branched chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN); LYSINE; and CHOLINE catabolism, that is due to defects in either subunit of ELECTRON TRANSFER FLAVOPROTEIN or its dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (EC 188.8.131.52).
An electron transport chain complex that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from SUCCINATE to CYTOCHROME C. It includes ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX II and ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Flavoproteins that serve as specific electron acceptors for a variety of DEHYDROGENASES. They participate in the transfer of electrons to a variety of redox acceptors that occur in the respiratory chain.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.