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Germination sensu stricto in Arabidopsis involves seed-coat and endosperm rupture by the emerging seedling root. Subsequently, the cotyledons emerge rapidly from the extra-embryonic tissues of the seed, allowing autotrophic seedling establishment [1, 2]. Seedling survival depends upon the presence of an intact seedling cuticle that prevents dehydration, which has hitherto been assumed to form the interface between the newly germinated seedling and its environment [3-5]. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, this is not the case. The primary interface between the emerging seedling and its environment is formed by an extra-cuticular endosperm-derived glycoprotein-rich structure called the sheath, which is maintained as a continuous layer at seedling surfaces during germination and becomes fragmented as cotyledons expand. Mutants lacking an endosperm-specific cysteine-rich peptide (KERBEROS [KRS]) show a complete loss of sheath production . Although krs mutants have no defects in germination sensu stricto, they show delayed cotyledon emergence, a defect not observed in seedlings with defects in cuticle biosynthesis. Biophysical analyses reveal that the surfaces of wild-type cotyledons show minimal adhesion to silica beads in an aqueous environment at cotyledon emergence but that adhesion increases as cotyledons expand. In contrast, krs mutant cotyledons show enhanced adhesion at germination. Mutants with defects in cuticle biosynthesis, but no sheath defects, show a similar adhesion profile to wild-type seedlings at germination. We propose that the sheath reduces the adhesiveness of the cotyledon surface under the humid conditions necessary for seed germination and thus promotes seed-coat shedding and rapid seedling establishment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current biology : CB
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The adhesion of the new adhesive strips is investigated on healthy volunteers
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Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)