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Zoophilic mosquitoes play an important role in the transmission of arboviruses of medical importance at human-wildlife interfaces, yet arbovirus surveillance efforts have been focused mostly on anthropophilic mosquitoes. Understanding the diversity of zoophilic mosquitoes and their associated feeding patterns and arboviruses can inform better vector control strategies. We morphologically identified mosquitoes collected from two game reserves in Kenya, the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) and locations near the Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). Representative mosquitoes were also identified by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) barcode sequencing. In addition, we identified the vertebrate hosts of mosquito blood meals from the contents of each mosquito's abdomen by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and sequencing of COI, 16S ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome b gene PCR products. Similarly, mosquito arbovirus infections were identified by HRM analysis and sequencing of and -specific RT-PCR products. Of 2858 mosquitoes collected, 51 were engorged with blood meals from seven different vertebrate hosts, including humans, birds, domestic, and peridomestic animals and wildlife. was the most abundant mosquito genus, with being the most abundant species in both study regions. Among MMNR samples, we detected dengue serotype-2 virus (DENV-2) for the first time in and , as well as Sindbis virus in male . We also detected DENV-2 in sampled from locations near the SHNR. Human and diverse wildlife blood meals were identified, including bushbuck blood in the dengue-infected and both human and hippopotamus blood in a single mosquito. Our findings highlight the potential risk of sylvatic dengue and Sindbis transmission to humans by zoophilic mosquitoes at human-wildlife interfaces in Africa. Of specific importance, we provide evidence of sylvatic DENV-2 in and representing potential new dengue vectors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
The World Health Organization estimates that more than half of the world's population is at risk for vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses. Because many arboviruses are mosquito borne, investig...
Dengue, yellow fever, and Zika are viruses transmitted by yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti [Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae)], to thousands of people each year. Mosquitoes transmit these viruses whil...
Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector of dengue virus, chikungunya virus and Zika virus due to its great dispersal capacity and virus susceptibility. A. aegypti feed on plant-derived sugars but femal...
Insect-specific flaviviruses and densoviruses, suggested to have been transmitted vertically, found in mosquitoes collected in Angola: Genome detection and phylogenetic characterization of viral sequences.
This report describes a survey of RNA and DNA viruses carried out in adult mosquitoes from Angola, raised under laboratory conditions from field-collected immature forms. This viral genomic survey was...
The exotic arboviruses chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) recently caused large outbreaks and continue to circulate in Puerto Rico, prompting entomological investigations at 9 locations with confirme...
This study investigates a novel approach to animal-assisted interventions through a series of wildlife immersion activities (wildlife observation, wildlife rehabilitation and bird feeding/...
The dengue, Zika and chikungunya arboviruses represent potentially severe infections to which the New Caledonian population is exposed. In the absence of specific treatment or vaccine, vec...
The purpose of this study is to find new ways to control malaria by looking at mosquitoes infected with the disease. Knowledge of the genetics that affect the spread of malaria by mosquito...
The purpose of this study is to assess the extent of and sources of variation in the glycaemic index values of foods measured by different laboratories around the world.
Background: Half of the world's population is at risk of malaria. Malaria is a disease that affects many people in Mali and other parts of Africa. It is caused by germs spread by mosquito...
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...