Sex Differences in the Association between Household Chaos and Body Mass Index z-Score in Low-Income Toddlers.

07:00 EST 6th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Sex Differences in the Association between Household Chaos and Body Mass Index z-Score in Low-Income Toddlers."

Associations between household chaos and childhood overweight have been identified, but the mechanisms of association are not clearly established in young children, with some studies linking higher chaos to increased obesity risk, whereas other studies link higher chaos to lower obesity risk. Given the lack of consistent findings and early sex differences in vulnerability to chaos, we examined child sex as a moderator of the chaos-child overweight association. We also tested these associations with self-regulation, as self-regulation has been implicated in understanding the chaos-obesity risk association in low-income toddlers. Parent-reported household chaos and observed child self-regulation were collected at baseline [ = 132; age 23.0 months (standard deviation 2.8)]. Children's body mass index z-score (BMIz) was measured at 33 months. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess whether child sex moderated the chaos-BMIz association. A three-way interaction between chaos, child sex, and self-regulation was also tested. Child sex moderated the chaos-BMIz association ( = -0.11,  = 0.04) such that chaos was positively associated with BMIz among boys ( = 0.12,  = 0.003), but unrelated in girls ( = 0.01,  = 0.78). A three-way interaction with self-regulation indicated that a positive chaos-BMIz association existed only for boys with average ( = 0.12,  = 0.004) and low ( = 0.22,  < 0.001) self-regulation. Boys with poor self-regulation may be particularly vulnerable to obesogenic effects of chaotic households.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Childhood obesity (Print)
ISSN: 2153-2176


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A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.

An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.

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