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Agriculture is the dominating land-use in the EU member states covering nearly half of the surface area. Using herbicides to reduce weed competition in agricultural areas can adversely affect Non-Target Terrestrial Plants (NTTP) growing in field margins. According to the EFSA Scientific Opinion on NTTPs an important protection goal is to maintain the biodiversity of plant species in agricultural areas. EFSA recommends to include also non-crop species mentioned in OECD guidelines (OECD 208 and 227) in the testing and to assess not only vegetative but also generative endpoints during the plant life-cycle such as flowering and seed production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of assessing generative endpoints of crop and non-crop species for NTTP regulatory testing under greenhouse conditions and to assess if generative endpoints are more sensitive than vegetative endpoints. The experimental design consisted of one control and four herbicide (Atlantis® WG) application rates, with 6 replicates each. The application rates of the test substance were the maximum field rate and 30%, 10% and 3% of the field rate. Biomass, plant height, flowering, seed production as well as seedling emergence of the F1 generation were assessed. The study shows a feasible approach to assess vegetative and generative endpoints of (non-) crops species under greenhouse conditions on the basis of the OECD guideline 227. The vegetative endpoints plant height and biomass were not more sensitive if assessed during the generative growth stage when compared to the vegetative growth stage of the plants. In contrast to that, the generative endpoint seed production was partly more sensitive in comparison to the vegetative endpoints biomass and plant height. For regulatory NTTP studies, 5 or more test substance rates at non-lethal levels should be tested so to allow the determination of ER10/50 values for vegetative and generative endpoints.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.
The science of soil cultivation, crop production, and livestock raising.
A group of ALGAE, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The science and practice of preventing, minimizing, or eliminating damage to AGRICULTURAL CROPS by pest organisms, weeds, and disease-causing agents.
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