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Reducing Amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is of fundamental importance for advancing the therapeutics for Alzheimer`s disease. The endogenous metallopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) has been identified as one of the key Aβ-degrading enzymes. Delivery of NEP to the brain by utilizing the Brain Shuttle (BS) transport system offers a promising approach for clearing central Aβ. We fused the extracellular catalytic domain of NEP to an active or inactive BS module. The two BS-NEP constructs were used to investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationships in the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dose-response and multiple dosing. As previously shown, NEP was highly effective at degrading Aβ in blood but not in the CSF compartment after systemic administration. In contrast, the NEP with an active BS module led to a significant CSF exposure of BS-NEP, followed by substantial Aβ reduction in CSF and brain parenchyma. Our data show that a BS module against the transferrin receptor facilitates the transport of an Aβ degrading enzyme across the blood-brain barriers to efficiently reduce Aβ levels in both CSF and brain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Many elderly American women use CNS depressant benzodiazepine (BZD) to ameliorate anxiety or insomnia. However, the chronic use of BZD (cBZD) is prevalent, causing adverse effects of BZD that include ...
Genetic predispositions associated with metabolism of the amyloid-β protein precursor underlie familial Alzheimer's disease; a form of dementia characterized by early disease onset and elevated level...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ42) reliably detects brain amyloidosis based on its high concordance with plaque burden at autopsy and with amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) liga...
Neprilysin (NEP) is a promiscuous zinc metalloprotease with a broad substrate specificity and cleaves a remarkable diversity of substrates through endopeptidase action. Two of these - amyloid-β and n...
Antibody therapies for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) hold promise but have been limited by the inability of these proteins to migrate efficiently across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Central nervous syste...
The aim of this study is to determine if lowering blood pressure using FDA approved medication (antihypertensive drugs) alters brain pulsatility and reduces brain amyloid beta protein accu...
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque buildup and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the brain, as well as widespread neurodegeneration. The evidence suggests that ...
This is a proof of concept study to determine if changes in brain amyloid levels are evident three months after infusion of 0.4 g/kg of IVIG every 14 days x 5 infusions. Amyloid levels wil...
The study is designed to test the relationship between measurements of brain amyloid using florbetapir F 18 PET imaging and true levels of amyloid burden assessed by histology at autopsy. ...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal degenerative disease of the brain for which there is no cure. AD causes brain cells to die. AD is thought to be caused by an excess of A-Beta amyloid, a...
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...