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Cyclo-Gly-Pro (CGP) attenuates nociception, however its effects on salivary glands remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of CGP on salivary flow and composition, and on the submandibular gland composition, compared with morphine. Besides, we characterized the effects of naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) on CGP- and morphine-induced salivary and glandular alterations in mice. After that, in silico analyses were performed to predict the interaction between CGP and opioid receptors. Morphine and CGP significantly reduced salivary flow and total protein concentration of saliva and naloxone restored them to the physiological levels. Morphine and CGP also reduced several infrared vibrational modes (Amide I, 1687-1594cm-1; Amide II, 1594-1494cm-1; CH2/CH3, 1488-1433cm-1; C = O, 1432-1365cm-1; PO2 asymmetric, 1290-1185cm-1; PO2 symmetric, 1135-999cm-1) and naloxone reverted these alterations. The in silico docking analysis demonstrated the interaction of polar contacts between the CGP and opioid receptor Cys219 residue. Altogether, we showed that salivary hypofunction and glandular changes elicited by CGP may occur through opioid receptor suggesting that the blockage of opioid receptors in superior cervical and submandibular ganglions may be a possible strategy to restore salivary secretion while maintaining antinociceptive action due its effects on the central nervous system.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
The successful synthesis and isolation of cyclo-C18 in experiments is a ground-breaking development in carbon rings. Herein, we studied the thermodynamic stabilities of cyclo-Cn (4 ≤ n ≤ 34) with ...
Transdermal naloxone delivery could be a potential option for treating opioid-induced pruritus, but naloxone does not permeate skin well due to its hydrophilic nature. Microneedles (MNs) could overcom...
Dried saliva spot (DSS) sampling is a minimally invasive technique for the spatial mapping of salivary protein distribution in the oral cavity. In conjunction with untargeted nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, we...
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Naloxone is a life-saving antidote for opioid overdoses. In June 2016, the Ontario government implemented the Ontario Naloxone Program for Pharmacies (ONPP) to enhance access to naloxone.
The study addresses a problem that face surgeons who perform key-hole surgery to resect the submandibular salivary gland. The problem is the narrow space available around that gland. This ...
The purpose of this study is determine salivary gland disposition of d-limonene, the primary component in citrus peel and a common dietary supplement. Salivary gland tissue and saliva wil...
Hypothesis 1. The submandibular gland is not a lymphatic organ and usually remains uninvolved with head and neck cancer despite the presence of metastatic disease in the lymph node...
For many patients taking opioids for pain relief one of the most distressing side effects is constipation. Naloxone is effective in the reversal of the effects of opioids and is used follo...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether using ultra-low dose naloxone, an opioid antagonist, has the potential to block remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance following s...
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
New abnormal growth of tissue in the SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND.