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Incidence, treatment, and outcomes of isoniazid mono-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in Alberta, Canada from 2007-2017.

08:00 EDT 10th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Incidence, treatment, and outcomes of isoniazid mono-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in Alberta, Canada from 2007-2017."

Isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is the most frequently encountered TB resistance phenotype in North America but limited data exist on the effectiveness of current therapeutic regimens. Ineffective treatment of Hr-TB increases patient relapse and anti-mycobacterial resistance, specifically MDR-TB. We undertook a multi-centre, retrospective review of culture-positive Hr-TB patients in Alberta, Canada (2007-2017). We assessed incidence and treatment outcomes, with a focus on fluoroquinolone (FQ)-containing regimens, to understand the risk of unsuccessful outcomes. Rates of Hr-TB were determined using the mid-year provincial population and odds of unsuccessful treatment was calculated using a Fisher's Exact test. One hundred eight patients of median age 37 years (
IQR:
26-50) were identified with Hr-TB (6.3%), 98 of whom were able to be analyzed. Seven percent reported prior treatment. Rate of foreign birth was high (95%), but continent of origin did not predict Hr-TB (p = 0.47). Mean compliance was 95% with no difference between FQ and non-FQ regimens (p = 1.00). Treatment success was high (91.8%). FQ-containing regimens were frequently initiated (70%), with no difference in unsuccessful outcomes compared to non-FQ-containing regimens (5.8% vs. 13.8%, OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-2.3, p = 0.23). Only one patient (1%) utilizing a less common non-FQ-based regimen including two months of pyrazinamide developed secondary multidrug resistance. Unsuccessful treatment was low (<10%) relative to comparable literature (~15%) and showed similar outcomes for FQ and non-FQ-based regimens and no deficit to those using intermittent fluoroquinolones in the continuation phase of treatment. Our findings are similar to recent data, however prospective, randomized trials of adequate power are needed to determine the optimal treatment for Hr-TB.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0229691

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