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Isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is the most frequently encountered TB resistance phenotype in North America but limited data exist on the effectiveness of current therapeutic regimens. Ineffective treatment of Hr-TB increases patient relapse and anti-mycobacterial resistance, specifically MDR-TB. We undertook a multi-centre, retrospective review of culture-positive Hr-TB patients in Alberta, Canada (2007-2017). We assessed incidence and treatment outcomes, with a focus on fluoroquinolone (FQ)-containing regimens, to understand the risk of unsuccessful outcomes. Rates of Hr-TB were determined using the mid-year provincial population and odds of unsuccessful treatment was calculated using a Fisher's Exact test. One hundred eight patients of median age 37 years (
26-50) were identified with Hr-TB (6.3%), 98 of whom were able to be analyzed. Seven percent reported prior treatment. Rate of foreign birth was high (95%), but continent of origin did not predict Hr-TB (p = 0.47). Mean compliance was 95% with no difference between FQ and non-FQ regimens (p = 1.00). Treatment success was high (91.8%). FQ-containing regimens were frequently initiated (70%), with no difference in unsuccessful outcomes compared to non-FQ-containing regimens (5.8% vs. 13.8%, OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-2.3, p = 0.23). Only one patient (1%) utilizing a less common non-FQ-based regimen including two months of pyrazinamide developed secondary multidrug resistance. Unsuccessful treatment was low (<10%) relative to comparable literature (~15%) and showed similar outcomes for FQ and non-FQ-based regimens and no deficit to those using intermittent fluoroquinolones in the continuation phase of treatment. Our findings are similar to recent data, however prospective, randomized trials of adequate power are needed to determine the optimal treatment for Hr-TB.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Over nine million new cases of TB, and nearly two million deaths from TB, are estimated to occur around the world every year, and new inf...