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The objectives were to investigate the effect of transscleral iontophoresis of macromolecules and , to study the importance of electroosmosis on macromolecules of low charge to mass ratio, and to evaluate transscleral iontophoresis efficacy in a choroidal neovascularization (CNV) animal model. Through transport experiments, the permeability coefficients of macromolecules [eg, immunoglobulin G (IgG), dextran 70 kDa] were determined under different conditions. The effect of ionic strength formulations and iontophoretic conditions was studied on the distribution of IgG and bevacizumab into the eye . Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to evaluate real time distribution of gadolinium-labeled albumin (Galbumin) following iontophoresis. The efficacy between no treatment, intravitreal injection (IVT), and iontophoresis of bevacizumab on a CNV model of subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus encoding human VEGF-165 was investigated. The permeability data suggested a significant effect of ionic strength on the iontophoretic transport of macromolecules. Transscleral iontophoresis of IgG at 4 mA with a low ionic strength formulation was about 600 times greater than passive diffusion and 14-fold over a conventional formulation . Approximately 0.6 mg of bevacizumab can be delivered into the rabbit eye with a 20-min treatment of iontophoresis. MRI showed that Galbumin was in the posterior tissues after iontophoresis. In the CNV model, the iontophoresis and IVT methods of bevacizumab delayed retinal neovascularization by 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Transscleral iontophoresis is capable of delivering macromolecule drugs through the conjunctiva and sclera, eventually exposing the retina/choroid to the drugs.
This article was published in the following journal.
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OPEN-LABEL, MULTI-CENTER, PHASE 1b/2a CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGNED TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF IONTOPHORETIC DEXAMETHASONE PHOSPHATE OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION IN PATIENTS HAVING UNDERGONE CATARACT SURGERY WITH IMPLANTATION OF A POSTERIOR CHAMBER INTRAOCUL
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Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.
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<!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->Drug delivery technologies are <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->patent pr...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...