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As the only known mammalian organ that can fully and annually regenerate, deer antler has significant advantages over lower-order animal models when investigating the control of stem cell-based organ regeneration. Antler regeneration is known to be initiated and maintained by neural crest-derived stem cells in different states of activation. Antler stem cells can therefore be used as a model to study proteins and pathways involved in the maintenance of a stem cell niche and their activation and differentiation during organ formation. In this study, the MSC markers CD73, CD90 and CD105 were examined within the antler tip. Label-free quantification was performed to investigate the protein profiles of antler stem cells under different stages of activation and included: dormant pedicle periosteum (DPP), antler growth center (GC), post-active stem cells from mid-beam antler periosteum (MAP), and deer facial periosteum (FP) as a control (n = 3 per group). PEAKS and IPA software were used to analyze the proteomic data. Our research confirmed the central role of stem cell activation in the development of this mammalian organ by localizing the MSC markers within the antler growth center. Label-free quantification revealed that the greatest number of unique proteins (eighty-seven) was found in the growth center. There were only 12 proteins found with expression levels that significantly differed between DPP and FP. Protein profiles of these two groups indicated that antler stem cells may use similar mechanisms to maintain dormancy within a stem cell niche. The number of significantly regulated proteins between DPP, MAP and GC was 153. Among them, the majority were upregulated in the growth center. Activation of antler stem cells was associated with many biological processes and signaling pathways such as Hippo and canonical Wnt signaling. This work identifies the key pathways, molecular/cellular functions and upstream regulators involved in mammal organ regeneration. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the iProX partner repository1 with the dataset identifier PXD016824.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of proteome research
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Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
The reverse developmental process in which differentiated cells with specialized functions become undifferentiated PROGENITOR CELLS once again. Dedifferentiation and subsequent proliferation provide the basis for tissue regeneration and the formation of new stem cell lineages.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.
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