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Alkylated benzenes are widely used as raw materials for the production of a variety of chemical compounds. Conventionally, they are obtained by the Friedel-Crafts reaction between alkyl halides and benzene. In this study, the synthesis of halogen-free alkylated benzenes was made possible by the direct alkylation of benzene with alkanes using montmorillonites as noble-metal-free solid acid catalysts. The direct alkylation of benzene with n-heptane was performed at 150 °C. Aluminum-exchanged montmorillonite showed the highest yield of the target C-7 alkylated products (Ph-C7) compared with other homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts: 1.8 % conversion of benzene with 58 % selectivity in 16 h. The montmorillonite catalyst system was applied to other linear and cyclic alkanes to give the corresponding alkylated products with good selectivities.
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Herein, we report the first direct branched-selective α-allylic alkylation of simple ketones with alkynes under rhodium and secondary amine cooperative catalysis. Through a rhodium-hydride-catalyzed ...
The merging of photoredox catalysis and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis for γ- and ε-alkylation of enals with alkyl radicals was developed. The alkylation reaction of γ-oxidized enals with a...
Using a combination of ultra-high vacuum variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the growth of graphene using benzen...
Alkylation of heteroarenes using aldehydes is a direct approach to increase molecular complexity, which however often involves the usage of stochiometric oxidant, strong acid and high temperature. Her...
The selective reactivity of carbamate and thiocarbamate toward alkylation and amidation is reported under stable, high-valent, cost-effective cobalt(III) catalysis. This method reveals the wide possib...
The research is to evaluate benzene metabolism after exposure at levels that can be found in the environment, such as the higher end concentrations in the air inside cars and buses while b...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the health effects of benzene exposure in workers in Shanghai, China.
This study compares air pollution exposures of residents in a South Baltimore community next to major industry with those in a comparison community with much less industry nearby. Parents ...
RATIONALE: Exposure to low-level benzene in the work place may affect the risk of developing cancer later in life. Learning about the long-term effects of benzene exposure may help the stu...
This study will examine the risks of workplace exposure to benzene, a substance known to lead to cancer of the blood and possibly of the lungs. It is used widely in industries and is a con...
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.