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White matter (WM) pathology is a clinically predictive feature of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF) with an underlying cerebrovascular pathology when fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) develop cognitive deficits (VCID mice) that we recently found could be prevented by physical exercise (EX). Here, we further investigated cognitive and WM pathology in VCID mice and examined the cellular substrates of the protective effects of moderate aerobic EX focusing on WM alterations. Six groups were studied: Wild-type (WT) and TGF mice (n = 20-24/group) fed standard lab chow or a 2% HCD, with two HCD-fed groups given concurrent access to running wheels. HCD had a significant negative effect in TGF mice that was prevented by EX on working and object recognition memory, the latter also altered in WT HCD mice. Whisker-evoked increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were reduced in HCD-fed mice, deficits that were countered by EX, and baseline WM CBF was similarly affected. VCID mice displayed WM functional deficits characterized by lower compound action potential amplitude not found in EX groups. Moreover, there was an increased number of collapsing capillaries, galectin-3-expressing microglial cells, as well as a reduced number of oligodendrocytes in the WM of VCID mice; all of which were prevented by EX. Our findings indicate that a compromised cerebral circulation precedes reduced WM vascularization, enhanced WM inflammation and impaired oligodendrogenesis that all likely account for the increased susceptibility to memory impairments in VCID mice, which can be prevented by EX. MAIN
A compromised cerebral circulation increases susceptibility to anatomical and functional white matter changes that develop alongside cognitive deficits when challenged with a high cholesterol diet; preventable by a translational regimen of exercise.
This article was published in the following journal.
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This third in a series of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) workshops, supported by "The Leo and Anne Albert Charitable Trust," was held from February 8 to 12 at the Omni Resort in Carlsbad, CA. Thi...
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This study aimed to investigate associations of objectively measured and self-reported physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior with white matter microstructure in children with overweight or obe...
Physical exercise has been identified as a health promotion strategy for the oldest old. However, scientific evidence regarding the benefits of exercise on nonagenarians is scarce. This systematic rev...
The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of inflammation on central nervous system (CNS) glutamate, white matter pathology and alterations in behavior and cognition in middle-a...
This research focuses on overweight, sedentary children whose health, cognition, and academic performance are therefore at risk, and who may be particularly responsive to exercise interven...
The relationship between WM lesions (WM) and Postural Instability Gait Disorders (PIGD-PD)in Parkinson's disease patients is largely unknown. We hypothesize that sub-clinical WM pathology ...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of white matter lesions in Chinese migraineurs with and without right-to-left shunt. The aim is to study the relationship among right...
Pharmacological Recruitment of Endogenous Neural Precursors to Promote Pediatric White Matter Repair: Establishing Correlations Between Visual Outcomes, Saccadic Function and MEG Oscillations in Children With Demyelinating Disorders in Comparison to Healt
The neural circuits in our brains require a layer of insulation in order to transmit signals in a rapid and efficient fashion. This insulation is called White Matter and is comprised of a ...
Region of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that appears darker in color than the other type, WHITE MATTER. It is composed of neuronal CELL BODIES; NEUROPIL; GLIAL CELLS and CAPILLARIES but few MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS.
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities.
Tapering-off physical activity from vigorous to light, to gradually return the body to pre-exercise condition and metabolic state.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Dementia describes a range of symptoms of cognitive decline. For example memory loss, problems with reasoning and communication skills, and a reduction in a person's abilities and skills in carrying out daily activities. There are about 820,000 peo...