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Simple and robust assays to monitor enzymatic ATP cleavage with high efficiency in real-time are scarce. To address this shortcoming, we developed novel fluorescently labelled adenosine tri-, tetra- and pentaphosphate analogues of ATP. The novel ATP analogues bear - in contrast to earlier reports - only a single acridone-based dye at the terminal phosphate group. The dye's fluorescence is quenched by the adenine component of the ATP analogue and is restored upon cleavage of the phosphate chain and dissociation of the dye from the adenosine moiety. Thereby the activity of ATP cleaving enzymes can be followed in real-time. We demonstrate this proficiency for ubiquitin activation by the ubiquitin-activating enzymes UBA1 and UBA6 which represents the first step in an enzymatic cascade leading to the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins, a process that is highly conserved from yeast to humans. We found that the efficiency to serve as cofactor for UBA1/UBA6 very much depends on the length of the phosphate chain of the ATP analogue: triphosphates are used poorly while pentaphosphates are most efficiently processed. Notably, the novel pentaphosphate-harbouring ATP analogue supersedes the efficiency of recently reported dual-dye labelled analogues and thus, is a promising candidate for broad applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
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Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A ubiquitin-like protein that functions in CELL CYCLE regulation and embryogenesis. It is attached covalently to its substrates following activation by the UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1-UBA3 enzyme complex. NEDD8 attaches to CULLINS, activating their E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE activity, to promote polyubiquitination and degradation of CYCLINS and regulatory proteins
A single protein comprised of tandem repeats of the UBIQUITIN 78-amino acid sequence. It is a product of the polyubiquitin gene which contains multiple copies of the ubiquitin coding sequence. Proteolytic processing of ubiquitin C results in the formation of individual ubiquitin molecules. This protein is distinct from POLYUBIQUITIN, which is a protein formed through isopeptide linkage of multiple ubiquitin species.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...