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In this study we assessed eye morphology and retinal topography in two flamingo species, the Caribbean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and the Chilean flamingo (P. chilensis). Eye morphology is similar in both species and cornea size relative to eye size (
A ratio) is intermediate between those previously reported for diurnal and nocturnal birds. Using stereology and retinal whole mounts, we estimate that the total number of Nissl-stained neurons in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer in the Caribbean and Chilean flamingo is ~1.70 and 1.38 million, respectively. Both species have a well-defined visual streak with a peak neuron density of between 13,000 and 16,000 cells mm located in a small central area. Neurons in the high-density regions are smaller and more homogeneous compared to those in medium- and low-density regions. Peak anatomical spatial resolving power in both species is approximately 10-11 cycles/deg. En-face images of the fundus in live Caribbean flamingos acquired using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a thin, dark band running naso-temporally just dorsal to the pecten, which aligned with the visual streak in the retinal topography maps. Cross-sectional images (B-scans) obtained with SD-OCT showed that this dark band corresponds with an area of retinal thickening compared to adjacent areas. Neither the retinal whole mounts, nor the SD-OCT imaging revealed any evidence of a central fovea in either species. Overall, we suggest that eye morphology and retinal topography in flamingos reflects their cathemeral activity pattern and the physical nature of the habitats in which they live.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of comparative neurology
This presentation will survey the retinal architecture, advantages, and limitations of several lesser-known rodent species that provide a useful diurnal complement to rats and mice. These diurnal rode...
Studies utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT) in psychosis have identified abnormalities in retinal cytoarchitecture. We aim to analyze retinal layer topography in psychosis and its correlation...
Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is an endemic and relict species from the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot and a popular ornamental tree. Knowledge about the evolutionary history of this ...
(250 words max) PURPOSE:: To compare short-term refractive and visual acuity outcomes after topography-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) planned with a new topography analysis system to thos...
Since 2006, harmful dinoflagellate blooms of Cochlodinium geminatum have infrequently occurred in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. During late October to early November in 2018, C. geminatum bloo...
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of flamingo exercise on balance in patients with balance impairment due to senil osteoarthritis
Background and Rationale: LASIK has been among the highest satisfaction rates of surgical procedures, ranging from 82%-98%. Different ablation profiles have been developed over the years....
FLIP topography has been FDA cleared to evaluate a variety of esophageal conditions, but has never been evaluated in patients with scleroderma. The investigators hope to evaluate this tech...
The inner retina is crucially dependent on an adequate retinal blood supply. When the retina becomes ischemic and hypoxic this results in severe vision loss due to retinal neovascularizati...
The main objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between the measurement of the Cobb angle (angle of scoliosis) by conventional radiography and angle measured by surface t...
A group of rare, idiopathic, congenital retinal vascular anomalies affecting the retinal capillaries. It is characterized by dilation and tortuosity of retinal vessels and formation of multiple aneurysms, with different degrees of leakage and exudates emanating from the blood vessels.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Often associated with Hippocrates, the process became a significant part of public health investigation and epidemiological methodology, particularly between the 17th and 19th centuries. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...