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One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional hazards (PH), which is unlikely to hold for each feature. When applied to genomic features exhibiting some form of non-proportional hazards (NPH), these methods could lead to an under- or over-estimation of the effects. We propose a broad array of marginal screening techniques that aid in feature ranking and selection by accommodating various forms of NPH. First, we develop an approach based on Kullback-Leibler information divergence and the Yang-Prentice model that includes methods for the PH and proportional odds (PO) models as special cases. Next, we propose R2 measures for the PH and PO models that can be interpreted in terms of explained randomness. Lastly, we propose a generalized pseudo-R2 index that includes PH, PO, crossing hazards and crossing odds models as special cases and can be interpreted as the percentage of separability between subjects experiencing the event and not experiencing the event according to feature measurements.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
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Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A method for analyzing and mapping differences in the copy number of specific genes or other large sequences between two sets of chromosomal DNA. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, or amplifications within the genomic DNA of an individual (with a tumor for example) or family members or population or between species.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
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