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The generation of sulfate radicals is a key factor to limit the catalytic activities of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs). Microwave irradiation is a specific method to heat solutions via thermal and nonthermal effects, and has attracted an increasing amount of attention in recent years. Herein, we focus on the application of microwaves in SR-AOPs that called SR-MAOPs in environmental remediation, including wastewater, landfill leachate, biological waste sludge and soil, etc. treatment. Various systems including homogeneous and heterogeneous SR-MAOPs were reviewed. In wastewater treatment, not only the dyes and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were considered, the application in actual water matrices was also summarized. In addition, the function of remediation for organic-contaminated soil, landfill leachate and biological waste sludge were assessed using SR-MAOPs. In addition to evaluating the degradation efficiency of various organic pollutants from environment, the dewaterability is another key to treat biological waste sludge. The SR-MAOPs could break up hydrogen bonds and inactivate and denature complex biological molecules via microwave effects to achieve the dewatering of microorganisms in sludge. Furthermore, the COD of the sludge increased to a high level after microwave irradiation of sludge, which means that biopolymers released from microbial cells into the solution. Then, the released COD could be well treated by the SR-MAOPs. Based on the summary, we reveal that SR-MAOPs are potential technologies for environmental remediation, especially for systems with complicated organic compounds.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 188.8.131.52.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 184.108.40.206.
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