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Pesticide exposure in agricultural streams requires non-target species to adapt. However, pesticides may reduce performance in between exposure events due to long-term effects and physiological fitness costs of adaptation. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide exposure to low concentrations in the widespread crustacean Gammarus pulex. We collected populations from six German streams covering no to moderate agricultural pesticide exposure. Peak concentrations ranged up to 1/400 of their acute median lethal concentration (Toxic Unit = -2.6), resulting in significant changes in the macroinvertebrate community composition (SPEAR = up to 0.12). Acute toxicity tests revealed up to 2.5-fold increased tolerance towards the most frequently found insecticide clothianidin compared to populations from non-contaminated streams. However, populations showing increased insecticide tolerance were characterized by reduced survival, per capita growth and mating when cultured under pesticide-free conditions in the laboratory for three months. We conclude that pesticide pollution triggers adaptation both at the species and the community level even at concentrations considered to be safe according to the European pesticide legislation. In G. pulex, exposure and adaptation are associated with impaired performance which potentially affects ecosystem functions such as leaf litter degradation. These long-term impairments need to be considered in deriving safe concentrations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
The pressure within the CARDIAC ATRIUM. It can be measured directly by using a pressure catheter (see HEART CATHETERIZATION). It can be also estimated using various imaging techniques or other pressure readings such as PULMONARY CAPILLARY WEDGE PRESSURE (an estimate of left atrial pressure) and CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE (an estimate of right atrial pressure).
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)