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The present study investigates the synergistic performance of the sonophotolytic-activated ZnO/persulfate (US/UV/ZnO/PS) process in the decolorization of acid blue 113 (AB113) dye from aqueous solution and its feasibility for the treatment of real textile wastewater. Decolorization of AB113 solution was modeled by central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches and optimized by CCD-RSM and genetic algorithm (GA) approaches. Statistical metrics indicated that both CCD-RSM and ANN approaches seemed satisfactory. However, the results of statistical fit measures indicated a relative superiority of CCD-RSM as compared to the ANN approach. The results of optimization of the process parameters by CCD-RSM and GA approaches appeared to be similar as follows: pH = 6.1, reaction time = 25 min, US power density = 300 W/L, ZnO = 0.88 g/L and PS = 2.43 mmol/L. The synergistic effect of the hybrid US/UV/ZnO/PS process in comparison with its individual processes (US, UV, ZnO, and PS) was found to be 54.3%. Quenching experiments discovered that and HO are the main oxidizing radicals in a mildly acidic condition of the reaction solution. The removal efficiency of AB113 in the presence of some anions decreased in the order of bicarbonate > sulfate > phosphate > nitrate > chloride. Further, the reusability feasibility of ZnO showed that the ZnO material retained its photocatalytic property after five successive cycles of reusability test, while Zn ion concentration in the reaction solution was measured to be 2.81 mg/L. The findings also indicated that the integrated process application suppresses extremely chemical and electrical costs. The study of the feasibility of the US/UV/ZnO/PS process in the treatment of real textile wastewater was done by determining COD, TOC and BOD/COD ratio. Results demonstrated that the 96.6 and 97.1% reduction of COD and TOC was achieved after 5 and 7 h reaction time, respectively. The obtained BOD/COD ratio changed from about 0.15 (for non-treated wastewater) to about 0.61 with increasing reaction time from zero to 90 min. In conclusion, the hybrid US/UV/ZnO/PS system can be proposed as a novel and promising approach to be utilized as a pretreatment technique before a biological treatment process to facilitate the biological treatment of recalcitrant textile wastewater.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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