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Functionalized graphene and its derivatives have been subject of many recent studies investigating their use as scavenger of various industrial pollutants. Adsorption is a feasible treatment, which can employ a wide variety of materials as adsorbents. Additionally, graphene has been distinguished for its remarkable properties, such as mechanical resistance, flexibility and electric conductivity. A relevant aspect of functionalized graphene is related to its selectivity, resulting in increased removal rates of specific pollutants. Hence, the functionalization process of graphene nanosheets is the cutting edge of the materials and environmental sciences, promoting the development of innovative and highly capable sorbents. The purpose of this review is to assemble the available information about functionalized graphene nanomaterials used for the removal of water pollutants and to explore its wide potential. In addition, various optimal experimental conditions (solution pH, equilibrium time, adsorbent dosage) are discussed. In each topic, aspects of environmental protection of adsorption process were evaluated, as well as the most recent works, available from high impact journals in the field, have been explored. Additionally, the employment of natural compounds to functionalize, reduce and support graphene, was evaluated as green alternatives to chemicals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental research
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Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
The condensation of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances on the surfaces of solids. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses as well as of tissues treated with exogenous drugs and chemicals.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.