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The complement cascade consists of cell bound and serum proteins acting together to protect the host from pathogens, remove cancerous cells and effectively links innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite its usefulness in microbial neutralization and clearance of cancerous cells, excessive complement activation causes an immune imbalance and tissue damage in the host. Hence, a series of complement regulatory proteins present at a higher concentration in blood plasma and on cell surfaces tightly regulate the cascade. The complement cascade can be initiated by B-1 B cell production of natural antibodies. Natural antibodies arise spontaneously without any known exogenous antigenic or microbial stimulus and protect against invading pathogens, clear apoptotic cells, provide tissue homeostasis, and modulate adaptive immune functions. Natural IgM antibodies recognize microbial and cancer antigens and serve as an activator of complement mediated lysis. This review will discuss advances in complement activation and regulation in bacterial and viral infections, and cancer. We will also explore the crosstalk of natural antibodies with bacterial populations and cancer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular immunology
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Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
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