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High-solid anaerobic digestion (HAD) can directly treat dewatered sewage sludge (total solid content ≥15%) with superior volume efficiency. Sludge stabilization during HAD is expected to achieve by throughout organic degradation and conversion towards methane-rich biogas release and humic formation. Sewage sludge is the combination of microbial zoogleas and theirs adsorption of organic and inorganic matter, in which the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) account 60-80% of total sludge organic matter, inevitably participating most extracellular metabolic pathways. The interactions between EPS transformation and genetically annotated metabolic pathways were found in this research. In brief, noticing the highly cross-linked structures in EPS with major active components of humic substances (HS) and protein (PN), as PN hydrolysis and decomposition in EPS were enhanced in the high-solid anaerobic condition, the exposure of aromatic groups and sites in HS were considerable. HS release was the main factor shifting the electron exchange capacity and activity, which aided in energy metabolism of sludge microorganisms involved in redox reactions, especially the methanogenesis, thus in turn facilitating the PN degradation; Then, the screened humic groups and active protein derives might act as the beneficial precursors to regenerate neo-humic structures, whose significant bridging effect and signal role on stimulating amino acid biosynthesis, member transport and metallic complexation could further contribute to proteolytic condensation and EPS reconstruction. Hence, the in-depth sludge stabilization mechanism during HAD process was established for developing enlightening strategies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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The investigators hypothesis is lateral retinaculum release has no effect on treatment of Patellar Recurrent Dislocation with Medial Patellofemoral Ligament (MPFL) reconstruction.
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Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Substances which, upon release into the atmosphere, water, or soil, or which, in direct contact with the skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, or as additives to food, cause health risks to humans or animals through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. The concept includes safe handling, transportation, and storage of these substances.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
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