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Perinatal hypoxia is still one of the greatest threats to the newborn child, even in developed countries. However, there is a lack of works which summarize up-to-date information about that huge topic. Our review covers a broader spectrum of recent results from studies on mechanisms leading to hypoxia-induced injury. It also resumes possible primary causes and observed behavioral outcomes of perinatal hypoxia. In this review, we recognize two types of hypoxia, according to the localization of its primary cause: environmental and placental. Later we analyze possible pathways of prenatal hypoxia-induced injury including gene expression changes, glutaminergic excitatory damage (and a role of NMDA receptors in it), oxidative stress with ROS and RNS production, inflammation and apoptosis. Moreover, we focus on the impact of these pathophysiological changes on the structure and development of the brain, especially on its regions: corpus striatum and hippocampus. These brain changes of the offspring lead to impairments in their postnatal growth and sensorimotor development, and in their motor functions, activity, emotionality and learning ability in adulthood. Later we compare various animal models used to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal injury (hypoxic, ischemic or combinatory) on living organisms, and show their advantages and limitations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiological research
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether markers of intrapartum hypoxia differ according to sex, and if this could explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in males.
Although perinatal deaths are still a common pregnancy outcome in developing countries, little is known about the effect perinatal death has on fathers.
Perinatal brain injury (PBI) to the developing white matter results in hypomyelination of axons and can cause long-term motor and cognitive deficits e.g. cerebral palsy. There are currently no approve...
Hypoglycemia is a significant risk factor for perinatal brain injury and adverse outcomes, particularly in infants requiring resuscitation following hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult. We aimed to study ...
Maternal cigarette smoking is a major perinatal insult that contributes to an increased risk cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental diseases in offspring. Our previous studies have revealed that perina...
The increase in pediatric HIV infection has a substantial impact on childhood mortality in the developing world. A number of recent studies suggest that as many as half or more of mother-t...
This observational study will investigate whether differences in birth events and oxygen levels during the newborn period affects the brain activity of children during the middle childhood...
The primary objective of this research is to measure neurochemicals in the activated human brain during both normoxia (normal oxygen availability) and induced mild hypoxia (reduced oxygen ...
The investigators will investigate the effect of hypobaria and hypoxia on physiological responses such as: oxygen saturation, heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygenation, brain's...
When the brain detects a drop in oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia) there is a compensatory increase in blood flow. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a cluster of symptoms which commonly ...
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)
Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
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