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Impact of perinatal hypoxia on the developing brain.

08:00 EDT 23rd March 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Impact of perinatal hypoxia on the developing brain."

Perinatal hypoxia is still one of the greatest threats to the newborn child, even in developed countries. However, there is a lack of works which summarize up-to-date information about that huge topic. Our review covers a broader spectrum of recent results from studies on mechanisms leading to hypoxia-induced injury. It also resumes possible primary causes and observed behavioral outcomes of perinatal hypoxia. In this review, we recognize two types of hypoxia, according to the localization of its primary cause: environmental and placental. Later we analyze possible pathways of prenatal hypoxia-induced injury including gene expression changes, glutaminergic excitatory damage (and a role of NMDA receptors in it), oxidative stress with ROS and RNS production, inflammation and apoptosis. Moreover, we focus on the impact of these pathophysiological changes on the structure and development of the brain, especially on its regions: corpus striatum and hippocampus. These brain changes of the offspring lead to impairments in their postnatal growth and sensorimotor development, and in their motor functions, activity, emotionality and learning ability in adulthood. Later we compare various animal models used to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal injury (hypoxic, ischemic or combinatory) on living organisms, and show their advantages and limitations.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Physiological research
ISSN: 1802-9973
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.

Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)

Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.

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