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Hormones are important signaling molecules regulating developmental processes and responses to environmental stimuli in higher plants. Rice endosperm, the portion of the seed surrounding the embryo, is the main determinant of rice grain shape and yield; however, the dynamics and exact functions of phytohormones in developing endosperm remain elusive. Through a systemic study including transcriptome analysis, hormone measurement, and transgene-based endosperm-specific expression of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes, we demonstrated that dynamic phytohormone levels play crucial roles in the developing rice endosperm, particularly in regard to grain shape and quality. We detected diverse, differential, and dramatically changing expression patterns of genes related to hormone biosynthesis and signaling during endosperm development, especially at early developmental stages. Liquid chromatography measurements confirmed the dynamic accumulation of hormones in developing endosperm. Further transgenic analysis performed on plants expressing hormone biosynthesis genes driven by an endosperm-specific promoter revealed differential effects of the hormones, especially auxin and brassinosteroids, in regulating grain shape and quality. Our studies help elucidate the distinct roles of hormones in developing endosperm and provide novel and useful tools for influencing crop seed shape and yield. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of integrative plant biology
Grain size is a key agronomic trait that is directly associated with grain yield in rice. Although several genes related to grain size in rice have been identified, our understanding of the mechanism ...
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Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The anamorphic form of the fungus MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA and the most important pathogen of rice worldwide. It causes rice blast which prevents maturation of the rice grains.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...
Genetic engineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Examples of genetically engineered (transgenic) organisms currently on the market include...